CN109358487B  Pseudo satellite system and method based on GNSS precision time service  Google Patents
Pseudo satellite system and method based on GNSS precision time service Download PDFInfo
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 CN109358487B CN109358487B CN201811179445.5A CN201811179445A CN109358487B CN 109358487 B CN109358487 B CN 109358487B CN 201811179445 A CN201811179445 A CN 201811179445A CN 109358487 B CN109358487 B CN 109358487B
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 gnss
 coordinate
 clock
 receiver
 pseudo
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 230000001702 transmitter Effects 0.000 claims abstract description 50
 238000004364 calculation method Methods 0.000 claims abstract description 10
 239000011159 matrix material Substances 0.000 claims description 53
 230000000875 corresponding Effects 0.000 claims description 23
 239000000969 carrier Substances 0.000 claims description 19
 238000000034 method Methods 0.000 claims description 14
 238000002242 deionisation method Methods 0.000 claims description 12
 230000007274 generation of a signal involved in cellcell signaling Effects 0.000 claims description 10
 238000001914 filtration Methods 0.000 claims description 9
 238000006243 chemical reaction Methods 0.000 claims description 8
 238000005259 measurement Methods 0.000 claims description 7
 FUSGACRLAFQQRLUHFFFAOYSAN NEthylNnitrosourea Chemical compound 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Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G04—HOROLOGY
 G04R—RADIOCONTROLLED TIMEPIECES
 G04R20/00—Setting the time according to the time information carried or implied by the radio signal
 G04R20/02—Setting the time according to the time information carried or implied by the radio signal the radio signal being sent by a satellite, e.g. GPS

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01S—RADIO DIRECTIONFINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCEDETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
 G01S19/00—Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
 G01S19/01—Satellite radio beacon positioning systems transmitting timestamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
 G01S19/03—Cooperating elements; Interaction or communication between different cooperating elements or between cooperating elements and receivers
 G01S19/10—Cooperating elements; Interaction or communication between different cooperating elements or between cooperating elements and receivers providing dedicated supplementary positioning signals
 G01S19/11—Cooperating elements; Interaction or communication between different cooperating elements or between cooperating elements and receivers providing dedicated supplementary positioning signals wherein the cooperating elements are pseudolites or satellite radio beacon positioning system signal repeaters
Abstract
The invention belongs to the field of surveying and mapping and navigation, and discloses a pseudo satellite system and a pseudo satellite method based on GNSS precision time service.A GNSS receiver and a pseudo satellite signal transmitter are driven by utilizing a homologous crystal oscillator, the clock error of a local clock of the receiver is solved in real time by utilizing a precision singlepoint positioning model with coordinate constraint, and then the hardware delay between the signal transmitter and the GNSS receiver is eliminated by a method of calibrating hardware delay; the clock difference of the local clock obtained by solving is broadcasted to the user in a telegraph text mode, and the mathematical synchronization of the local clock and the GNSS system is realized. The invention can realize the precise time synchronization of a single pseudolite system and a GNSS system, does not need to construct a wired or wireless time synchronization link, and saves the layout cost and the hardware complexity. The pseudo satellite system is more convenient to realize combined positioning calculation with GNSS signals, and improves the availability and reliability of navigation positioning.
Description
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of surveying and mapping and navigation, and particularly relates to a pseudo satellite system and a pseudo satellite method based on GNSS precision time service.
Background
Currently, the current state of the art commonly used in the industry is such that:
the pseudolite technology realizes positioning by transmitting a ranging signal through a ground pseudolite signal transmitter, and can effectively solve the positioning problem of scenes in which a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) cannot work, such as indoor scenes, open mines, underground operation, tunnels and the like. Similar to GNSS positioning principles, pseudolite receivers need to receive ranging signals from multiple transmitters to determine their position. However, it is difficult to directly measure the geometric distance because the transmitter and receiver are not time synchronized. For the positioning principle of GNSS, it is necessary to closely synchronize a plurality of pseudolite transmitters in time and then estimate the time offset at the receiver to determine the position. The accuracy of the time synchronization between the transmitters largely determines the accuracy of the pseudolite positioning.
Currently, the pseudolite time synchronization mainly comprises the following steps: (1) a masterslave time synchronization system. And the time of the main crystal oscillator is broadcasted to other slave transmitters in a wired or wireless mode in a waveform or pulse mode, and the slave transmitters perform time synchronization by determining clock difference through comparing a local signal and a reference signal. The method has high precision, but the equipment is complex and the cost is expensive. If a wireless link is used for timing, signal non line of sight (NLOS) propagation can affect timing accuracy. The system applying the time synchronization method comprises a Locata pseudo satellite system in Australia and an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) positioning system; (2) differential time synchronization system. All transmitters independently receive GNSS signals for time service, and then one transmitter broadcasts the observed value or the corrected value to other transmitters. Orbit errors, clock errors and atmospheric errors of the GNSS are eliminated in the form of difference between stations, and therefore highprecision relative time service results are obtained. The method has high precision and relatively simple equipment, a communication link needs to be established between transmitters, certain requirements are required on the crystal oscillator quality of the transmitters, and in addition, the time service precision is deteriorated as the base line between the transmitters is lengthened. The system applying the time synchronization method has the advantages that a GPS repeater (3) directly synchronizes the time of all transmitters to the system time of a certain GNSS system in a singlepoint positioning or singlesatellite time service mode, the method is simple to implement and low in cost, but the accuracy is not high, usually in the order of tens of nanoseconds, and the requirement of precise pseudosatellite positioning is difficult to meet. Most Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) use this type of synchronization method.
In summary, the problems of the prior art are as follows:
(1) the current more accurate time synchronization method uses a differential time service method, which relies on a wired or wireless channel between transmitters for signal or information transmission. The cable channel has strong antiinterference capability, but the construction period is long, the equipment cost is expensive, and the distance between stations is limited to a certain extent. The wireless channel is easy to interfere, and the stability is difficult to guarantee. In addition, the transmitter requires additional circuitry for data reception and decoding, which increases the complexity and cost of the system design.
(2) The time synchronization of the ground pseudolite and the GNSS system can be realized by adopting a standard pseudorange GNSS point positioning technology, the method is simple to realize, and the time synchronization precision is in the order of tens of nanoseconds. The distance measurement error caused by the time synchronization error is several meters or even dozens of meters, and the requirement of precise positioning cannot be met.
The difficulty and significance for solving the technical problems are as follows:
the difficulty lies in that: the problems that the laying period is long, the equipment cost is high, the stability is difficult to guarantee, the complexity of system design is high and the cost is high in the prior art cannot be solved. The distance measurement error caused by the time synchronization error can not be solved, and the requirement of precise positioning can not be met.
The significance brought by the prior art is:
compared with the method for carrying out time synchronization by using optical fibers in the ultrawideband (UWB) positioning system in the prior art, the method for carrying out pseudosatellite time synchronization by using the GNSS precise point positioning method based on coordinate constraint can avoid establishing wired and wireless communication channels between base stations, and greatly reduce the line laying cost and the equipment cost. On the other hand, the problem of distance limitation between base stations can be solved by avoiding channel establishment, and the longer the line is laid, the higher the cost is.
Other pseudolite systems use wireless channels for time synchronization, such as the Australian Locata system. The wireless communication time service technology requires that the base stations must be in communication, if the base stations are not in communication, a non line of sight (NLOS) error is introduced, and the precision of time synchronization is reduced. Compared with the technology, the method of the invention does not require the communication among the base stations, and reduces the requirement on the layout condition of the base stations. Meanwhile, the cost and the complexity of the system are reduced without establishing a wireless channel.
In the prior art, a standard pseudorange singlepoint positioning method is used for time service, and the method has a similar principle with the method provided by the invention, but has different effects. According to the method, the time synchronization precision of 0.3 nanosecond is finally obtained by applying the carrier phase and various error elimination technologies, and the time synchronization precision of 10 nanosecond order can only be obtained by the pseudorange singlepoint positioning method. The pseudo satellite base stations with time synchronization better than 0.3 nanosecond are arranged in a certain range, positioning accuracy better than 10 centimeters in real time can be obtained by combining with a GNSS, the requirements of highprecision positioning such as unmanned aerial vehicle formation flying, lanelevel automatic driving, automatic parking and robot navigation can be met, and the pseudorange singlepoint positioning time synchronization method can only obtain positioning accuracy of several meters and cannot meet the requirements of precision positioning.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a pseudo satellite system and a method based on GNSS precision time service.
The invention is realized in this way, a pseudo satellite synchronization method based on GNSS precision time service includes:
driving a GNSS receiver and a pseudo satellite signal transmitter by using a homologous crystal oscillator, solving the clock error of a local clock of the receiver in real time by using a precise singlepoint positioning model with coordinate constraint, and eliminating the hardware delay between the signal transmitter and the GNSS receiver by a calibration hardware delay method;
the clock difference of the local clock obtained by solving is broadcasted to the user in a telegraph text mode, and the mathematical synchronization of the local clock and the GNSS system is realized.
Further, the method for synchronizing the pseudo satellite based on the GNSS precision time service specifically comprises the following steps:
1) installing a plurality of pseudolite transmitters at predetermined locations; measuring coordinates of a GNSS receiver antenna phase center; determining the offset of the GNSS receiving antenna and the signal transmitting antenna under the geocentric geostationary coordinate system according to the orientation of the pseudosatellite transmitting antenna, and then calculating the geocentric geostationary coordinate of the phase center of the signal transmitting antenna; (ii) a
2) Each pseudo satellite transmitter is provided with a GNSS receiver and a highstability crystal oscillator; the GNSS receiver and a baseband signal processing unit for generating the pseudo satellite signal are driven by the same highstability crystal oscillator; the GNSS receiver receives pseudorange and carrier phase observed values of the multitouch GNSS, and then the GNSS is used for realtime or forecast precise orbit and clock error data to perform precise point positioning PPP calculation with coordinate constraint to obtain local clock deviation;
3) generating a pseudolite ranging signal by using a signal generation baseband circuit driven by a homologous crystal oscillator; carrying out shorttime extrapolation on the calculated local clock deviation to a time point with a fixed interval; then, encoding the local clock deviation information and the transmitting antenna phase center information into broadcast ephemeris information, modulating the broadcast ephemeris information at a preset pulse edge, and broadcasting the broadcast ephemeris information and the ranging signals together;
4) after receiving the ranging signals of the pseudolite, the user receiver resolves pseudorange information and broadcast message information; correcting pseudorange information by using clock bias in the broadcast message; and then performing position calculation by using Kalman filtering.
Further, the position of the signal transmitting antenna is obtained by adopting a relative measurement method, a local ENU coordinate system is established by using the average phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna, and the deviation amount of the average phase center of the signal transmitting antenna and the phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna under the ENU coordinate system is directly or indirectly measured by using a compass and a tape measure and is marked as (delta E, delta N, delta U)^{T}Coordinates (B, L, H) of a geodetic coordinate system of the average phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna are geodetic longitude, geodetic latitude and geodetic height, respectively, where the geodetic longitude and latitude are in radians, then calculating a rotation matrix R:
then, will (Δ E, Δ N, Δ U)^{T}Converting the coordinate increment (delta X, delta Y, delta Z) T under the space rectangular coordinate system, and then calculating to obtain the coordinate under the space rectangular coordinate system of the phase center of the signal transmitting antenna, wherein the conversion formula is as follows:
in the formulaAndrespectively determining the coordinates of the average phase center of the GNSS signal receiving antenna and the average phase center of the pseudo satellite enhanced signal transmitting antenna under a space rectangular coordinate system;
the GNSS observation quantity is utilized to carry out precision positioning to obtain the coordinate of the average phase center of the other GNSS signal receiving antenna under a space rectangular coordinate systemAnd a corresponding geodetic coordinate system;
using formulasThe average phase center coordinates of the transmitting antenna of the pseudo satellite signals are obtained after conversion, and the coordinates do not change during the operation of the pseudo satellite.
Further, the method for performing precise time service by using the precise point positioning PPP comprises the following steps:
the receiver of the pseudosatellite signal transmitter receives pseudorange and carrier phase observed values of GNSS doublefrequency points or multifrequency points, and for the condition of the doublefrequency observed values, the doublefrequency observed values are utilized to form a deionization layer combination, and the nonionosphere combination observed value is a linear combination of two frequency observed values and is expressed as follows:
in the formula f_{1}，f_{2}Respectively representing the frequency, P, of a dualfrequency signal_{1},P_{2}Pseudorange observations, L, representing two frequencies_{1},L_{2}Represents twoA carrier phase observation for each frequency; p_{1},P_{2},L_{1}，L_{2}Are all directly acquired from the GNSS receiver;
establishing the following observation equation according to the combination of the pseudo range and the carrier phase without the ionized layer:
wherein i is the satellite number; l and P are respectively carrier phase and pseudorange deionization layer combined observed quantity, and the unit of meter is taken; rho is the distance between the receiver antenna and the satellite antenna; δ t_{r}、δt_{s}Respectively a receiver clock error and a satellite clock error; lambda is the deionization layer combination wavelength, and N is the deionization layer combination ambiguity; t is tropospheric delay; epsilon_{L}、ε_{P}Unmodeled errors and observation noise;
if the receiver simultaneously observes n satellites, 2n observation equations exist, GPS PPP is positioned, and n +5 unknown parameters are estimated; the unknown parameters are written in the form of vectors as follows:
X＝[x,y,z,δt_{r},T,N^{1},N^{2},…,N^{n}]
where x, y, z are receiver coordinate parameters, δ t_{r}For the receiver clock error parameter, T is the tropospheric zenith delay parameter (ZTD), N^{i}The parameter is the ionospherefree ambiguity parameter of the ith satellite;
for GPS PPP positioning, only one clock error parameter deltat needs to be estimated_{r}(ii) a For multisystem PPP combined positioning, besides estimating the receiver clock error of a GPS, the system deviation of other systems is also estimated; for the PPP model of the GPS/GLONASS/Beidou/Galileo foursystem combination, the clock error parameters are written as:
δt_{r}＝[δt_{GPS},δt_{GLOGPS},δt_{BDSGPS},δt_{GALGPS}]^{T}
in the formula, δ t_{GPS}Receiver clock difference, δ t, for GPS observations_{GLOGPS},δt_{BDSGPS},δt_{GALGPS}The system time deviation is corresponding to the observed value of the GLONASS, Beidou and Galileo systems, the number of parameters corresponding to the multisystem PPP is 4+ m + n, wherein m is the total number of GNSS systems participating in positioning; under the condition of multiGNSS combined positioning, an observation equation is a nonlinear function of receiver position parameters x, y and z, and is written into a matrix form after linearization:
V_{2n×1}＝A_{2n×(5+n)}L_{2n×1},P_{2n×2n}
in the formula, V is an observed value residual error vector; a is a design matrix; l is an observation vector; p is an observation value weight matrix;
for GPS PPP positioning, the design matrix is represented as:
wherein MF_{i}Is a tropospheric projection function;
if the user obtains prior coordinate and precision information, redundant observed quantity is increased, and an error equation becomes after a threedimensional coordinate constraint equation is added:
in the formula, Λ is a prior coordinate residual vector; i is a threedimensional unit matrix; o is a matrix of all 0 s; z is a threedimensional prior coordinate; the corresponding variance covariance matrix is expressed as:
wherein R is a variance covariance matrix corresponding to the observation equation (9), wherein R_{o}Variance covariance matrix, R, as an observed value_{c}The matrix is constrained for a priori coordinates.
Further, an extended kalman filtering form of the GNSS precision singlepoint positioning time service model with additional coordinate constraint is represented as follows: and (3) time updating:
x and P are parameter vectors and variance covariance matrixes corresponding to the parameter vectors respectively; for time service application, all four types of parameters are regarded as constants or random walk processes, and a state transition matrix is regarded as a unit matrix; for prior constraint of coordinate parameters, an initial value of a variance covariance matrix corresponding to the coordinate parameters is constrained to be a very small value, and the specific size is determined according to the precision of the prior coordinate;
Q_{k}is the process noise matrix for epoch k, the matrix is represented as:
wherein Q_{P},Q_{c},Q_{T} Q_{N}Process noise of a coordinate parameter, a clock error parameter, a troposphere parameter and a ambiguity parameter respectively; since the coordinate and ambiguity parameters are treated as constants during time service, Q_{P}And Q_{N}Assigned a value of 0 or a small number, Q_{c}And Q_{T}Determining according to the noise characteristic of the clock and the variation characteristic of the troposphere zenith delay;
the measurement update procedure of the filter solution is represented as:
K_{k}is a filter gain matrix of epoch k, R_{k}The variance covariance matrix of the observed value at the moment k is obtained, and the clock error information of the local clock can be obtained after the filtering is finished; the clock difference information is the deviation between the clock face time of the local clock and the GPS system time.
The invention also aims to provide a pseudo satellite synchronous computer program based on GNSS precision time service, which realizes the pseudo satellite synchronous method based on GNSS precision time service.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a terminal, wherein the terminal is equipped with at least a controller for implementing the GNSS precise time service pseudolite synchronization method.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a computerreadable storage medium, which comprises instructions that, when executed on a computer, cause the computer to execute the method for pseudolite synchronization of GNSS precision time service.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a GNSS precision time servicebased pseudolite system for implementing the method for pseudolite synchronization of GNSS precision time service, wherein the GNSS precision time servicebased pseudolite system comprises: a pseudolite transmitter;
the pseudo satellite transmitter integrates a GNSS receiver and a pseudo satellite signal transmitting module, is provided with a highstability crystal oscillator, performs realtime precise singlepoint positioning calculation with coordinate constraint through an observation signal of the GNSS receiver, determines the time deviation between a local clock and a GNSS system, and realizes nanosecond precise time synchronization of the local clock and the GPS system time;
the pseudolite is provided with a highstability clock system, and continuously and stably outputs a lowphasenoise frequency signal for local time maintenance and pseudolite signal generation;
the GNSS receiver and the pseudo satellite signal transmitting module are driven by the homologous crystal oscillators;
and the user receiver at the user end is used for positioning based on the pseudo satellite signals or performing combined positioning by combining the pseudo satellite signals and the GNSS signals.
Furthermore, the pseudo satellite system based on GNSS precision time service further comprises a GNSS receiving antenna and a pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna; the antenna phase centers of the GNSS receiving antenna and the pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna are not overlapped; for positioning requirements of the order of a few meters, the deviation is not considered, but for precise positioning, the error caused by the deviation of the phase center of the transmitting antenna is not considered.
The GNSS receiving antenna and the pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna are both arranged on the same support, the GNSS receiving antenna is used for receiving the sky, and the pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna is used for laterally providing an enhanced ranging signal for a ground user;
clock systems include, but are not limited to, oven controlled crystal oscillators (OCXOs), Chip Scale Atomic Clocks (CSACs), and miniaturized atomic clocks, all for local time maintenance and pseudolite signal generation.
In summary, the advantages and positive effects of the invention are:
the invention utilizes GNSS observation data to carry out precise point positioning, thereby calculating the precise time deviation between the local clock and the GNSS system clock. And after the clock deviation is calculated, the content of the deviation is compiled into a broadcast ephemeris and is broadcast to the user. After the pseudolite user corrects the clock error term in the broadcast ephemeris, the time synchronization in the mathematical sense among a plurality of pseudolite transmitters is realized, and the circuit and hardware complexity of the pseudolite time synchronization is simplified.
The invention utilizes the GNSS precise ephemeris and clock error and the carrier phase observation value of the GNSS receiver to carry out precise pointofpoint positioning (PPP) to determine the local time. Figure 3 has shown that the method described herein can achieve time synchronization accuracy better than 0.3 nanoseconds with corresponding ranging error less than 10 centimeters. The pseudo satellite system with the time synchronization precision superior to 0.3 nanosecond can support centimeterlevel realtime positioning service, and is particularly critical to lanelevel navigation, automatic driving and other technologies in a complex environment.
The invention carries out time synchronization by a PPP method without establishing a limited or wireless channel between transmitters, thereby saving the cost and reducing the complexity of the system. The signal transmitters are not limited by distance and have no visibility limitation, and no cable or optical cable is required to be laid.
The invention adopts a mathematical clock synchronization method, and does not need to adjust the output of the crystal oscillator through a physical method, thereby breaking through the limitations of control precision and performance of some electronic components. At present, most clock synchronization and discipline circuits realize physical synchronization by adjusting the frequency of a crystal oscillator through a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) or a Numerical Controlled Oscillator (NCO), and the method is limited to the control precision and the performance of the controlled oscillators.
The time service process of the invention can ensure the synchronization of the time of the pseudo satellite system and the time system of the GNSS, and reduce the uncertainty of the conversion between the time systems, thereby having more advantages in the aspect of realizing the joint positioning of the pseudo satellite system and the GNSS system.
The local time of the pseudo satellite system and the time of the GNSS system are kept in mathematical synchronization, so that the problem of time deviation between the pseudo satellite time system and the GNSS system does not need to be additionally processed when the combined positioning is carried out by combining the pseudo satellite and the GNSS signal, and the processing difficulty of the combined positioning is simplified.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a GNSS precision time servicebased pseudolite system according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a hardware logic structure diagram of a pseudolite signal transmitter according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of a method for acquiring a phase center of a pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna based on GNSS precision time service according to an embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. a GNSS navigation satellite; 2. GNSS navigation signals; 3. a pseudolite signal transmitter; 4. ranging signals broadcast by pseudolites; 5. a user receiver.
FIG. 4 is a comparison graph of time synchronization errors in time service by the precision time service method and the pseudorangebased singlepoint positioning method.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the following embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
The current more accurate time synchronization method uses a differential time service method, which relies on a wired or wireless channel between transmitters for signal or information transmission. The cable channel has strong antiinterference capability, but the cost is high, and the distance between stations is limited to a certain extent. The wireless channel is easy to interfere, and the stability is difficult to guarantee. In addition, the transmitter requires additional circuitry for data reception and decoding, which increases the complexity and cost of the system.
The pseudo satellite synchronization method based on GNSS precision time service provided by the embodiment of the invention comprises the following steps:
1) several pseudolite transmitters are installed at predetermined locations. And accurately measuring the coordinates of the phase center of the GNSS receiver antenna. And according to the orientation of the pseudosatellite transmitting antenna, determining the offset of the GNSS receiving antenna and the signal transmitting antenna under the geocentric coordinate system, and then accurately calculating the geocentric coordinate of the phase center of the signal transmitting antenna.
2) Each pseudolite transmitter is equipped with a highprecision GNSS receiver and is equipped with a highstability crystal oscillator. The GNSS receiver and the baseband signal processing unit for generating the pseudo satellite signals use the same highstability crystal oscillator for driving. The GNSS receiver receives pseudorange and carrier phase observed values of a multimode GNSS, and then performs precise pointtopoint positioning (PPP) calculation with coordinate constraint by utilizing GNSS realtime or forecast precise orbit and clock difference data provided by an international GNSS service organization (IGS) or other organizations, so as to obtain highprecision local clock bias. After convergence, the clock skew accuracy can reach 0.1 nanosecond level.
3) And generating a pseudolite ranging signal by using a signal generation baseband circuit driven by the homologous crystal oscillator. The calculated local clock offset should be extrapolated for a short time, taking into account the receiver signal processing delay, to a fixed interval time point, such as a 1PPS (Pulse Per Second) Pulse edge, or a 10PPS Pulse edge. And then the local clock deviation information and the phase center information of the transmitting antenna are coded into broadcast ephemeris information, modulated at a preset pulse edge and broadcast together with the ranging signal.
4) After receiving the ranging signal of the pseudolite, the user receiver calculates the pseudorange information and the broadcast message information. And correcting the pseudorange information by using the clock deviation in the broadcast message. And then performing position calculation by using Kalman filtering.
Referring to fig. 1 to fig. 3, a GNSS precision time servicebased pseudolite system according to an embodiment of the present invention includes: the system comprises a GNSS navigation satellite 1, a GNSS navigation signal 2, a pseudo satellite signal emitter 3, a ranging signal 4 broadcast by a pseudo satellite and a user receiver 5. A pseudolite system should include 3 and more pseudolite signal transmitters.
The pseudo satellite emitter 3 integrates a GNSS receiver and a pseudo satellite signal emitting module, is provided with a highstability crystal oscillator, performs realtime precise singlepoint positioning calculation with coordinate constraint through an observation signal of the GNSS receiver, and determines the time deviation between a local clock and a GNSS system, thereby realizing nanosecond precise time synchronization of the local clock and the GPS system time.
Pseudolites are equipped with highly stable clock systems, not limited to oven controlled crystal oscillators (OCXOs), Chip Scale Atomic Clocks (CSACs), and miniaturized atomic clocks. The highstability clock system can continuously and stably output a frequency signal with low phase noise for local time maintenance and pseudo satellite signal generation.
When a plurality of pseudolites work cooperatively, nanosecond time precision synchronization of a local clock and the time of a certain GNSS system is independently realized by each pseudolite system, and cables, optical fibers or electromagnetic wave channel links are not required to be established among the pseudolites for time synchronization.
The GNSS receiver and the pseudosatellite signal transmitting module are driven by the same crystal oscillator, so that the time service of the signal transmitting module is accurate and reliable. And the influence of hardware delay between a receiver signal transmitting module and the GNSS receiver is eliminated by a calibration method, so that the time service precision of the pseudosatellite signal transmitting time is ensured.
The pseudo satellite enhanced signal and the GNSS system time are synchronized mathematically, and the clock disciplining circuit is not depended to realize the synchronization of the frequency signal output by adjusting the frequency or the phase of the clock output. The mathematical synchronization is that the deviation between the pseudolite local clock and the GPS system is broadcast to the user in the form of telegraph text, and the user deducts the influence of clock difference during the positioning process to obtain the distance measurement value of mathematical time synchronization, rather than adjusting the frequency or phase of the clock output to maintain the local clock.
The user receiver 5 can realize a positioning mode based on a pseudo satellite signal and also can realize combined positioning combining the pseudo satellite and the GNSS signal, and because the local clock of the pseudo satellite system and the GPS time realize mathematical synchronization, the problem of deviation processing between the pseudo satellite system time and the GNSS system time does not need to be considered when the pseudo satellite and the GNSS signal are combined for positioning.
Fig. 2 is a hardware logic structure diagram of a pseudolite signal transmitter according to an embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure: the signal transmitter comprises a set of GNSS receiving antenna, and in order to ensure the time service precision, the antenna at least supports two frequency points of L1/L2. A set of signal transmitting antennas. The GNSS radio frequency front end includes an Automatic Gain Controller (AGC), an analogtodigital converter (ADC), and the like. The module is responsible for converting GNSS analog electrical signals to digital signals. The GNSS baseband and positioning processing unit may include an FPGA, an MCU, or may be a single chip of SoC. The parallel signal correlation operation capability and the floating point number calculation capability are required. The module is responsible for the correlation operation of digital signals, the extraction of GNSS pseudorange and carrier phase observed values, the calculation of standard positioning and the calculation of precise pointtopoint positioning (PPP) and the control of the whole machine. Therefore, the module should have a powerful computing power. Where the parts other than the PPP are functions that a standard GNSS receiver should have. The signal generation baseband signal processing unit has the functions of generating a ranging signal and modulating navigation messages, and the radio frequency front end of the signal has the function of digitaltoanalog conversion. The preposed power amplifier has the functions of gain control and power amplification, and finally, the signal is transmitted out through the antenna.
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of a method for acquiring a phase center of a pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna based on GNSS precision time service according to an embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure O_{R}Is the mean phase center, O, of the GNSS signal receiving antenna_{S}Is the average phase center of the pseudolite signal transmitting antenna.
In the figure, E, N, and U represent north, east, and elevation directions, respectively. O is_{R}Can be measured in advance through GNSS and can obtain O by utilizing a compass and a tape measure_{S}Relative to O_{R}The offset in three directions, and finally the coordinate transformation in a certain mode can obtain O_{S}Accurate coordinates in a geodetic coordinate system.
The invention is further described with reference to the following figures and examples.
As shown in fig. 1, the pseudolite system according to the embodiment of the present invention utilizes GNSS signals to achieve time synchronization between pseudolite signal transmitters, and a plurality of pseudolite signal transmitters that are timesynchronized broadcast ranging signals at the same time. The pseudosatellite signal receiver realizes self positioning and navigation by receiving a plurality of ranging signals. Pseudolite systems are commonly used in situations where GNSS is not operational or has poor performance, to enhance the navigation signals.
The pseudolite signal generation flow is shown in figure 2. The pseudolite system is provided with a highstability clock or a chiplevel atomic clock and drives a GNSS receiver and a signal transmitting baseband in the pseudolite to work. Since the receiver and the transmitter use the same crystal oscillator, time synchronization between them can be guaranteed from hardware.
The clock difference information determined by the precise singlepoint positioning algorithm with coordinate constraint is the difference between the clock surface time of the highstability clock and the time of the GNSS system, and the precision of the clock difference information is in nanosecond level. The same crystal oscillator is also used for the signal emission baseband, so that only one hardware delay is different between the clock face of the signal emission baseband and the clock face of the GNSS receiver, the hardware delay is related to the frequency and the working temperature and can be regarded as a constant in a certain time, and the influence of the hardware delay is eliminated through early calibration. The pseudolite encodes a threedimensional coordinate (global coordinate system or local coordinate system) of the average phase center of the signal transmitting antenna and a realtime calculated clock difference into text information and modulates the text information onto a ranging code generated according to a local clock. And finally, modulating the ranging code on a carrier wave through a spread spectrum technology and broadcasting.
The pseudolite system does not physically adjust the output frequency of the highstability crystal oscillator in a form similar to a GPS discipline circuit, but forms mathematical time synchronization by broadcasting a clock difference. The performance of the pseudolite can be improved to a certain extent by improving the frequency output stability of the highstability crystal oscillator by using the GPS taming circuit before the pseudolite starts to work.
The present invention is further described below in conjunction with a specific solution to the problem of pseudolite signal transmitting antenna average phase center coordinate acquisition and time synchronization.
Similar to the GPS operating principle, the position of the phase center of the transmitting antenna of the pseudolite signal is known to be a prerequisite for pseudolite positioning.
The invention relates to a pseudolite system comprising a GNSS receiving antenna and a pseudolite signal transmitting antenna. The antenna phase centers of the two do not coincide, and the specific schematic is shown in fig. 3.
The two antennas may be mounted on the same support, with the GNSS receiving antenna being primarily for antenna reception and the pseudolite signal transmitting antenna being primarily sideways for providing enhanced ranging signals to terrestrial users. The position of the GNSS receiving antenna can be accurately obtained by means of GNSS precision positioning, but the position of the signal transmitting antenna cannot be directly measured. The present invention therefore employs a relative measurement method. That is, the average phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna is used to establish the local ENU coordinate system (north direction, east direction and elevation direction), the compass and the tape measure can be used to directly or indirectly measure the deviation between the average phase center of the signal transmitting antenna and the phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna in the ENU coordinate system, and the deviation is marked as (delta E, delta N, delta U)^{T}Coordinates of a geodetic coordinate system of the average phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna are (B, L, H) which are geodetic longitude, geodetic latitude and geodetic height, respectively, wherein the geodetic longitude and the geodetic latitude are in radian, and then a rotation matrix R can be calculated:
then (Δ E, Δ N, Δ U)^{T}Coordinate increment converted into space rectangular coordinate systemThe quantities (Δ X, Δ Y, Δ Z) T, and then the coordinates in the spatial rectangular coordinate system of the phase center of the signal transmitting antenna can be calculated, and the conversion formula is as follows:
in the formulaAndand respectively determining the coordinates of the average phase center of the GNSS signal receiving antenna and the average phase center of the pseudo satellite enhanced signal transmitting antenna under a space rectangular coordinate system. The coordinates of the average phase center of the GNSS signal receiving antenna under a space rectangular coordinate system can be obtained by performing precise positioning by utilizing the GNSS observed quantityAnd its corresponding geodetic coordinate system. The average phase center coordinate of the pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna can be obtained after conversion by using the formula (2), and the coordinate does not change during the working period of the pseudo satellite.
The invention relates to a pseudo satellite navigation positioning system which realizes accurate time synchronization between a single signal transmitter and a GNSS system by receiving GNSS signals and resolving, but not realizes relative time synchronization by establishing a wired or wireless communication channel between pseudo satellite transmitters. The method for carrying out precise time service by adopting a precise singlepoint positioning mode comprises the following steps:
the receiver of the pseudo satellite signal transmitter can receive pseudo range and carrier phase observed values of GNSS doublefrequency points or multifrequency points, and for the condition of the doublefrequency observed values, the doublefrequency observed values can be utilized to form a deionization layer combination, and the nonionosphere combination observed value is a linear combination of two frequency observed values and can be expressed as follows:
in the formula f_{1}，f_{2}Respectively representing the frequency, P, of a dualfrequency signal_{1},P_{2}Pseudorange observations, L, representing two frequencies_{1},L_{2}Representing carrier phase observations for two frequencies. P_{1},P_{2},L_{1}，L_{2}May be directly acquired from the GNSS receiver. Establishing the following observation equation according to the combination of the pseudo range and the carrier phase without the ionized layer:
wherein i is the satellite number; l and P are respectively carrier phase and pseudorange deionization layer combined observed quantity, and the unit of meter is taken; rho is the distance between the receiver antenna and the satellite antenna; δ t_{r}、δt_{s}Respectively a receiver clock error and a satellite clock error; lambda is the deionization layer combination wavelength, and N is the deionization layer combination ambiguity; t is tropospheric delay; epsilon_{L}、ε_{P}Unmodeled errors and observed noise.
If the receiver observes n satellites simultaneously, there are 2n observation equations, and for the GPS PPP positioning, n +5 unknown parameters need to be estimated. The unknown parameters can be written in the form of a vector as follows.
X＝[x,y,z,δt_{r},T,N^{1},N^{2},…,N^{n}] (5)
Where x, y, z are receiver coordinate parameters, δ t_{r}For the receiver clock error parameter, T is the tropospheric zenith delay parameter (ZTD), N^{i}The ionosphericfree ambiguity parameter is for the ith satellite.
For GPS PPP positioning, only one clock error parameter δ t needs to be estimated_{r}And (4) finishing. For the multisystem PPP combined positioning, besides estimating the receiver clock error of GPS, the intersystem bias of other systems needs to be estimated, for example, for the PPP model of GPS/GLONASS/Beidou/Galileo foursystem combination, the clock error parameters thereof should be written as:
δt_{r}＝[δt_{GPS},δt_{GLOGPS},δt_{BDSGPS},δt_{GALGPS}]^{T} (6)
in the formula, δ t_{GPS}Receiver clock difference, δ t, for GPS observations_{GLOGPS},δt_{BDSGPS},δt_{GALGPS}The system time offset corresponds to the observed value of the GLONASS, Beidou, Galileo system, and the number of parameters corresponding to the multisystem PPP should be 4+ m + n, where m is the total number of GNSS systems participating in positioning. Under the condition of multiGNSS combined positioning, an observation equation is a nonlinear function of receiver position parameters x, y and z, and can be written into a matrix form after linearization:
V_{2n×1}＝A_{2n×(5+n)}L_{2n×1},P_{2n×2n} (7)
in the formula, V is an observed value residual error vector; a is a design matrix; l is an observation vector; p is an observation weight matrix.
For GPS PPP positioning, the design matrix can be expressed as:
wherein MF_{i}As a tropospheric projection function.
It is contemplated that the pseudolite installation location may be premeasured and not substantially changed during use. For time service applications, the coordinate parameters are not the parameters of most concern. The prior coordinate information is used for constraining the coordinate parameters, so that the strength of the equation can be improved, and the estimation precision of the clock error is further improved.
If the user can obtain the prior coordinate and the precision information, which is equivalent to increase of redundant observed quantity, the error equation is changed after the threedimensional coordinate constraint equation is added:
in the formula, Λ is a prior coordinate residual vector; i is a threedimensional unit matrix; o is a matrix of all 0 s; and Z is a threedimensional prior coordinate. The corresponding variance covariance matrix can be expressed as:
wherein R is a variance covariance matrix corresponding to the observation equation (9), wherein R_{o}Variance covariance matrix, R, as an observed value_{c}Constraining the matrix for a priori coordinates
Through a model of prior coordinate constraint, the time service precision and the convergence time can be effectively improved. For PPP positioning, the correlation among epochs of clock error, troposphere parameters and ambiguity parameters needs to be considered, so that the clock error is more suitable to be solved by adopting a filtering form. Without clock hops, both the receiver clock and tropospheric delay can be simulated using a random walk model. In the case where cycle slip does not occur, the ambiguity parameter may be calculated using a random constant model. Then the extended kalman filtering form of the GNSS precision singlepoint positioning time service model with additional coordinate constraints can be expressed as:
and (3) time updating:
and x and P are parameter vectors and variance covariance matrixes corresponding to the parameter vectors respectively. For time service applications, four types of parameters can be regarded as constants or random walk processes, and thus the state transition matrix can be regarded as a unit matrix. Considering prior constraint of the coordinate parameters, the initial value of the variance covariance matrix corresponding to the coordinate parameters is constrained to be a very small value, and the specific size is determined according to the precision of the prior coordinate.
Q_{k}Is a process noise matrix for epoch k, which can be expressed as:
wherein Q_{P},Q_{c},Q_{T} Q_{N}Process noise of the coordinate parameter, the clock error parameter, the troposphere parameter and the ambiguity parameter, respectively. Since the coordinate and ambiguity parameters can be considered as constants during the time service, Q_{P}And Q_{N}Can be assigned a value of 0 or a small number, Q_{c}And Q_{T}It is determined from the noise characteristics of the clock and the varying characteristics of the tropospheric zenith delay.
The measurement update procedure of the filter solution can be expressed as:
K_{k}is a filter gain matrix of epoch k, R_{k}And (4) obtaining a variance covariance matrix of the observed value at the moment k, and obtaining clock error information of the local clock after updating after filtering is completed. The clock difference information is the deviation between the clock face time of the local clock and the GPS system time.
The realtime precise singlepoint implementation should access realtime GNSS precise ephemeris and precise clock error data stream or predicted precise ephemeris or clock error data, which can be freely acquired at an International GNSS Service (IGS) website or an FTP site of an analysis center thereof.
A plurality of pseudolites are respectively synchronized with the time of a GNSS system in a GNSS precision point positioning mode, and a separate communication link is not required to be established between pseudolite base stations for time transfer.
The user terminal can realize positioning based on the pseudo satellite system under the condition of receiving pseudo satellite signals from 4 or more pseudo satellite signals, and can also combine the pseudo satellite signals and GNSS signals to perform positioning. The local time of the pseudo satellite system and the GNSS system realize mathematical synchronization, so that the intersystem deviation of the two time systems does not need to be considered when the combined positioning is carried out, but the intersystem deviation caused by different response delays of the radio frequency front end of the receiver to different frequency signals still needs to be considered, and the deviation can be estimated by using an intersystem deviation parameter when the combined positioning is carried out, thereby realizing the effect of the combined positioning.
The invention is further described below in connection with specific experiments.
In order to verify the technical effect of the precise time service, the following verification experiment is carried out.
A GNSS receiving antenna of a pseudolite is installed at a known position, a pseudolite receiver is adopted to observe GNSS data for 24 hours, an original observation value of the GNSS is recorded, and the pseudolite is provided with a highstability crystal oscillator. And performing a time synchronization experiment on the pseudo satellite by adopting a postprocessing mode. The time synchronization is carried out by respectively adopting the standard positioning time service method in the prior art and the GNSSbased precise time service method. The time synchronization errors of the two methods are analyzed and shown in figure 4. The accuracy (error in one time) of the time synchronization of the standard singlepoint positioning method and the precision time service method is 3.98 nanoseconds and 0.28 nanoseconds respectively. The variation range of the standard singlepoint positioning time synchronization error is10 ns30 ns, and the corresponding range error can reach 9 m at most. The time synchronization error change range of the precision time service method is0.4 nanosecond0.6 nanosecond, and the corresponding distance measurement error is only 0.18 meter at most. Under the same condition, the method provided by the invention is far higher than the existing standard singlepoint positioning time service method in the aspect of time synchronization precision.
In the above embodiments, the implementation may be wholly or partially realized by software, hardware, firmware, or any combination thereof. When used in whole or in part, can be implemented in a computer program product that includes one or more computer instructions. When loaded or executed on a computer, cause the flow or functions according to embodiments of the invention to occur, in whole or in part. The computer may be a general purpose computer, a special purpose computer, a network of computers, or other programmable device. The computer instructions may be stored in a computer readable storage medium or transmitted from one computer readable storage medium to another, for example, the computer instructions may be transmitted from one website site, computer, server, or data center to another website site, computer, server, or data center via wire (e.g., coaxial cable, fiber optic, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), or wireless (e.g., infrared, wireless, microwave, etc.)). The computerreadable storage medium can be any available medium that can be accessed by a computer or a data storage device, such as a server, a data center, etc., that includes one or more of the available media. The usable medium may be a magnetic medium (e.g., floppy Disk, hard Disk, magnetic tape), an optical medium (e.g., DVD), or a semiconductor medium (e.g., Solid State Disk (SSD)), among others.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents and improvements made within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included within the scope of the present invention.
Claims (7)
1. A pseudo satellite synchronization method based on GNSS precision time service is characterized in that the pseudo satellite synchronization method based on GNSS precision time service comprises the following steps:
driving a GNSS receiver and a pseudo satellite signal transmitter by using a homologous crystal oscillator, solving the clock error of a local clock of the receiver in real time by using a precise singlepoint positioning model with coordinate constraint, and eliminating the hardware delay between the signal transmitter and the GNSS receiver by a calibration hardware delay method;
the clock difference of the local clock obtained by solving is broadcasted to the user in a telegraph text mode, so that the mathematical synchronization between the local clock and the GNSS system is realized;
the pseudo satellite synchronization method based on GNSS precision time service specifically comprises the following steps:
1) installing a plurality of pseudolite transmitters at predetermined locations; measuring coordinates of a GNSS receiver antenna phase center; determining the offset of the GNSS receiving antenna and the signal transmitting antenna under the geocentric geostationary coordinate system according to the orientation of the pseudosatellite transmitting antenna, and then calculating the geocentric geostationary coordinate of the phase center of the signal transmitting antenna;
2) each pseudo satellite transmitter is provided with a GNSS receiver and a highstability crystal oscillator; the GNSS receiver and a baseband signal processing unit for generating the pseudo satellite signal are driven by the same highstability crystal oscillator; the GNSS receiver receives pseudorange and carrier phase observed values of the multitouch GNSS, and then the GNSS is used for realtime or forecast precise orbit and clock error data to perform precise point positioning PPP calculation with coordinate constraint to obtain local clock deviation;
3) generating a pseudolite ranging signal by using a signal generation baseband circuit driven by a homologous crystal oscillator; carrying out shorttime extrapolation on the calculated local clock deviation to a time point with a fixed interval; then, encoding the local clock deviation information and the transmitting antenna phase center information into broadcast ephemeris information, modulating the broadcast ephemeris information at a preset pulse edge, and broadcasting the broadcast ephemeris information and the ranging signals together;
4) after receiving the ranging signals of the pseudolite, the user receiver resolves pseudorange information and broadcast message information; correcting pseudorange information by using clock bias in the broadcast message; then using Kalman filtering to calculate the position;
the position of the signal transmitting antenna is obtained by adopting a relative measurement method, a local ENU coordinate system is established by using the average phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna, the deviation between the average phase center of the signal transmitting antenna and the phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna under the ENU coordinate system is directly or indirectly measured by using a compass and a tape measure and is marked as (delta E, delta N, delta U)^{T}Coordinates (B, L, H) of a geodetic coordinate system of the average phase center of the GNSS receiving antenna are geodetic longitude, geodetic latitude and geodetic height, respectively, where the geodetic longitude and latitude are in radians, then calculating a rotation matrix R:
then, will (Δ E, Δ N, Δ U)^{T}Converting the coordinate increment (delta X, delta Y, delta Z) T under the space rectangular coordinate system, and then calculating to obtain the coordinate under the space rectangular coordinate system of the phase center of the signal transmitting antenna, wherein the conversion formula is as follows:
in the formulaAndrespectively determining the coordinates of the average phase center of the GNSS signal receiving antenna and the average phase center of the pseudo satellite enhanced signal transmitting antenna under a space rectangular coordinate system;
the GNSS observation quantity is utilized to carry out precision positioning to obtain the coordinate of the average phase center of the other GNSS signal receiving antenna under a space rectangular coordinate systemAnd a corresponding geodetic coordinate system;
using formulasThe average phase center coordinates of the transmitting antenna of the pseudo satellite signals are obtained after conversion, and the coordinates do not change during the operation of the pseudo satellite.
2. The method for synchronizing pseudosatellites based on GNSS precision time service of claim 1, wherein the method for performing precision time service by using precision point positioning PPP comprises:
the receiver of the pseudosatellite signal transmitter receives pseudorange and carrier phase observed values of GNSS doublefrequency points or multifrequency points, and for the condition of the doublefrequency observed values, the doublefrequency observed values are utilized to form a deionization layer combination, and the nonionosphere combination observed value is a linear combination of two frequency observed values and is expressed as follows:
in the formula f_{1},f_{2}Respectively representing the frequency, P, of a dualfrequency signal_{1},P_{2}Pseudorange observations, L, representing two frequencies_{1},L_{2}A carrier phase observation representing two frequencies; p_{1},P_{2},L_{1}，L_{2}Are all directly acquired from the GNSS receiver; establishing the following observation equation according to the combination of the pseudo range and the carrier phase without the ionized layer:
wherein i is the satellite number; l and P are respectively carrier phase and pseudorange deionization layer combined observed quantity, and the unit of meter is taken; rho is the distance between the receiver antenna and the satellite antenna; δ t_{r}、δt_{s}Respectively a receiver clock error and a satellite clock error; lambda is the deionization layer combination wavelength, and N is the deionization layer combination ambiguity; t is tropospheric delay; epsilon_{L}、ε_{P}Unmodeled errors and observation noise;
if the receiver simultaneously observes n satellites, 2n observation equations exist, GPS PPP is positioned, and n +5 unknown parameters are estimated; the unknown parameters are written in the form of vectors as follows:
X＝[x,y,z,δt_{r},T,N^{1},N^{2},…,N^{n}]
in the formula xY, z are receiver coordinate parameters, δ t_{r}For the receiver clock error parameter, T is the tropospheric zenith delay parameter (ZTD), N^{i}The parameter is the ionospherefree ambiguity parameter of the ith satellite;
for GPS PPP positioning, only one clock error parameter deltat needs to be estimated_{r}(ii) a For multisystem PPP combined positioning, besides estimating the receiver clock error of a GPS, the system deviation of other systems is also estimated; for the PPP model of the GPS/GLONASS/Beidou/Galileo foursystem combination, the clock error parameters are written as:
δt_{r}＝[δt_{GPS},δt_{GLOGPS},δt_{BDSGPS},δt_{GALGPS}]^{T}
in the formula, δ t_{GPS}Receiver clock difference, δ t, for GPS observations_{GLOGPS},δt_{BDSGPS},δt_{GALGPS}The system time deviation corresponding to the observation value of the GLONASS, Beidou and Galileo systems is 4+ m + n parameters corresponding to the PPP of the multiple systems, wherein m is the total number of GNSS systems participating in positioning; under the condition of multiGNSS combined positioning, an observation equation is a nonlinear function of receiver position parameters x, y and z, and is written into a matrix form after linearization:
V_{2n×1}＝A_{2n×(5+n)}L_{2n×1},P_{2n×2n}
in the formula, V is an observed value residual error vector; a is a design matrix; l is an observation vector; p is an observation value weight matrix;
for GPS PPP positioning, the design matrix is represented as:
wherein MF_{i}Is a tropospheric projection function;
if the user obtains prior coordinate and precision information, redundant observed quantity is increased, and an error equation becomes after a threedimensional coordinate constraint equation is added:
in the formula, Λ is a prior coordinate residual vector; i is a threedimensional unit matrix; o is a matrix of all 0 s; z is a threedimensional prior coordinate; the corresponding variance covariance matrix is expressed as:
wherein R is a variance covariance matrix corresponding to the observation equation, wherein R_{o}Variance covariance matrix, R, as an observed value_{c}The matrix is constrained for a priori coordinates.
3. The method for synchronizing the pseudolite based on the GNSS precision time service of claim 1, wherein the extended kalman filter form of the GNSS precision singlepoint positioning time service model with the additional coordinate constraint is represented as follows: and (3) time updating:
x and P are parameter vectors and variance covariance matrixes corresponding to the parameter vectors respectively; for time service application, all four types of parameters are regarded as constants or random walk processes, and a state transition matrix is regarded as a unit matrix; for prior constraint of coordinate parameters, an initial value of a variance covariance matrix corresponding to the coordinate parameters is constrained to be a very small value, and the specific size is determined according to the precision of the prior coordinate;
Q_{k}is the process noise matrix for epoch k, the matrix is represented as:
wherein Q_{P},Q_{c},Q_{T} Q_{N}Process noise of a coordinate parameter, a clock error parameter, a troposphere parameter and a ambiguity parameter respectively; since the coordinate and ambiguity parameters are treated as constants during time service, Q_{P}And Q_{N}Assigned a value of 0 or a small number, Q_{c}And Q_{T}Determining according to the noise characteristic of the clock and the variation characteristic of the troposphere zenith delay;
the measurement update procedure of the filter solution is represented as:
K_{k}is a filter gain matrix of epoch k, R_{k}The variance covariance matrix of the observed value at the moment k is obtained, and the clock error information of the local clock can be obtained after the filtering is finished; the clock difference information is the deviation between the clock face time of the local clock and the GPS system time.
4. A terminal is characterized in that the terminal is at least provided with a controller for realizing the pseudo satellite synchronization method of GNSS precision time service according to any claim 13.
5. A computerreadable storage medium comprising instructions which, when executed on a computer, cause the computer to perform the method for pseudolite synchronization for GNSS precision timing according to any of claims 1 to 3.
6. A pseudo satellite system based on GNSS precision time service for realizing the pseudo satellite synchronization method based on GNSS precision time service of any claim 13, characterized in that the pseudo satellite system based on GNSS precision time service comprises: a pseudolite transmitter;
the pseudo satellite transmitter integrates a GNSS receiver and a pseudo satellite signal transmitting module, is provided with a highstability crystal oscillator, performs realtime precise singlepoint positioning calculation with coordinate constraint through an observation signal of the GNSS receiver, determines the time deviation between a local clock and a GNSS system, and realizes nanosecond precise time synchronization of the local clock and the GPS system time;
the pseudolite is provided with a highstability clock system, and continuously and stably outputs a lowphasenoise frequency signal for local time maintenance and pseudolite signal generation;
an optical fiber or electromagnetic wave channel link for timesynchronized data transmission;
the GNSS receiver and the pseudo satellite signal transmitting module are driven by the homologous crystal oscillators;
and the user receiver at the user end is used for positioning based on the pseudo satellite signals or performing combined positioning by combining the pseudo satellite signals and the GNSS signals.
7. The GNSS fine timing based pseudolite system of claim 6,
the pseudo satellite system based on the GNSS precision time service further comprises a GNSS receiving antenna and a pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna; the antenna phase centers of the GNSS receiving antenna and the pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna are not overlapped;
the GNSS receiving antenna and the pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna are both arranged on the same support, the GNSS receiving antenna is used for receiving the sky, and the pseudo satellite signal transmitting antenna is used for laterally providing an enhanced ranging signal for a ground user;
clock systems including, but not limited to, an oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), a Chip Scale Atomic Clock (CSAC) and a miniaturized atomic clock are used for local time maintenance and pseudolite signal generation.
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