Quick Answer: What Is CSF In Meningitis?

Is CSF clear with viral meningitis?

CSF results The CSF findings are more suggestive of viral meningitis given the clear appearance of the CSF, the mildly raised WCC (consisting mainly of lymphocytes), raised protein level and normal glucose.

Further investigations including CSF PCR would be useful in identifying the specific causative virus..

What is considered high protein in CSF?

EVALUATION. Spinal fluid protein concentration is usually moderately elevated, with concentrations in the 150 to 300 mg/100 mL range. There are no qualitative abnormalities in the protein profile.

What does blood in CSF indicate?

Red blood cell (RBC) count—normally no red blood cells are present in the CSF. The presence of red blood cells may indicate bleeding into the CSF or may indicate a “traumatic tap” – blood that leaked into the CSF sample during collection.

Can CSF leaks come and go?

Patients who have had a CSF leak have described the fluid as having a salty or metallic taste. Dr. Frank P.K. Hsu, chair of the department of neurological surgery at UC Irvine Health, said that the fluid may also “come and go.”

Is CSF leak an emergency?

A CSF leak is a serious health issue. It involves this type of fluid escaping through a tear in the dura mater. The symptoms of a CSF leak include fluid drainage from the ears or nose and a headache that worsens when the head is upright.

What does protein in CSF indicate?

An abnormal protein level in the CSF suggests a problem in the central nervous system. Increased protein level may be a sign of a tumor, bleeding, nerve inflammation, or injury. A blockage in the flow of spinal fluid can cause the rapid buildup of protein in the lower spinal area.

How do you read CSF results?

Interpretation of CSF results from lumbar puncture (LP)Appearance: Clear.Opening pressure: 10-20 cmCSF.WBC count: 0-5 cells/µL. < 2 polymorphonucleocytes [PMN]) ... Glucose level: >60% of serum glucose.Protein level: < 45 mg/dL.Consider additional tests: CSF culture, others depending on clinical findings.

Can CSF leak cause meningitis?

The risk of meningitis from the traumatic CSF leak can present with high morbidity and even mortality depending on the cause and site of CSF leak. Except the cases with spontaneous diseases, traumatic CSF leak can be potentially detrimental with various complications such as bacterial meningitis if not self-resolved.

Why is CSF protein high in bacterial meningitis?

CSF protein Bacterial meningitis leads to a more permeable blood brain barrier (due to increased inflammation). Protein leaks into the subarachnoid space from the blood, resulting in markedly increased CSF protein levels.

What causes Xanthochromia in CSF?

Xanthochromia is usually caused by red blood cell degeneration in the CSF as would be seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The breakdown of red blood cells takes many hours to occur. Xanthochromia would be reliably seen by 12 hours and can persist for up to 2 weeks [this assumes that Vermulen1 was correct.

How can you tell if meningitis is viral or bacterial?

To determine whether a person is suffering from viral or bacterial meningitis, doctors will have to perform a lumbar puncture. This involves collecting a sample of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord to find out what is causing the meningitis.

Why would there be blood in CSF?

Finding red blood cells in the CSF may be a sign of bleeding. However, red blood cells in the CSF may also be due to the spinal tap needle hitting a blood vessel. Additional conditions which this test may help diagnose include: Arteriovenous malformation (cerebral)

What happens if CSF leak is not treated?

Untreated CSF leaks can lead to life-threatening meningitis, brain infections, or stroke.

How do I know if I have a CSF leak?

Symptoms of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak can include: Headache, which feels worse when sitting up or standing and better when laying down; may come on gradually or suddenly. Vision changes (blurred vision, double vision, visual field changes) Hearing changes/ringing in ears.

How long can you live with CSF leak?

At least 85% of posttraumatic CSF leak cases are of the posttraumatic rhinorrhea and almost all cases of posttraumatic rhinorrhea will stop on their own within 1 week25). However, delayed CSF leakages may rarely occur after a few years19,23).

What does CSF look like in meningitis?

In people with meningitis, the CSF often shows a low sugar (glucose) level along with an increased white blood cell count and increased protein. CSF analysis may also help your doctor identify which bacterium caused the meningitis.

What is the test for viral meningitis?

To diagnose viral meningitis, the doctor performs a lumbar puncture or ‘spinal tap’ to obtain some of the fluid that normally surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Laboratory tests on this fluid help the doctor decide whether the infection is caused by a virus or other germ such as bacteria.

What color is CSF in bacterial meningitis?

Table 2: Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis FindingsCSF CharacteristicNormal RangeSuggestive of Bacterial MeningitisColorClearCloudyRed blood cell countNoneNoneGram stainNegativeUsually Positive4 more rows•Jun 11, 2015