Who Is At Risk For Rheumatic Heart Disease?

Which valve is most commonly affected by rheumatic heart disease?

Rheumatic heart disease most commonly affects the mitral valve (which has only two leaflets; Figure 2) or the aortic valve, but any valve can be affected, and more than one can be involved..

What does rheumatic fever rash look like?

This photo shows the flat, painless rash with a wavy edge that may appear with rheumatic fever. Small, hard, painless lumps (nodules) may form under the skin in children with heart or joint inflammation. The nodules typically appear near the affected joints and go away after a while.

What antibiotics treat rheumatic fever?

The mainstay antibiotic is IM benzathine benzylpenicillin. Oral phenoxymethylpenicillin and erythromycin are also used as alternatives. These three antibiotics, in the required dosage forms are on the current EMLc. No additional antibiotic agents have been identified to date.

What are the complications of rheumatic heart disease?

Some complications of rheumatic heart disease include:Heart failure. This can occur from either a severely narrowed or leaking heart valve.Bacterial endocarditis. This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart. … Complications of pregnancy and delivery due to heart damage. … Ruptured heart valve.

How is valvular heart disease diagnosed?

Tests and Procedures. Echocardiography (echo) is the main test for diagnosing heart valve disease. But an EKG (electrocardiogram) or chest x ray commonly is used to reveal certain signs of the condition. If these signs are present, echo usually is done to confirm the diagnosis.

Is rheumatic heart disease permanent?

Rheumatic heart disease is a condition that causes permanent damage to the heart valves. It can develop after a child has rheumatic fever.

What are the symptoms of rheumatic heart disease?

The symptoms of heart valve problems – which are often the result of rheumatic heart disease – can include:chest discomfort or pain.irregular or rapid heartbeats (heart palpitations)shortness of breath.fatigue or weakness.light-headedness, dizziness or near fainting.swelling of the stomach, feet, or ankles.

How long can you live with rheumatic heart disease?

The relative survival was 96.9% (95% CI 96.1–97.5%) at one year and 81.2% (95% CI 79.2–83.0%) at five years (S3 Fig). The risk of death among RHD/ARF patients increased with age over and above background rates; there was also increased risk for both male and iTaukei patients (S4 Table).

Where is rheumatic fever most common in the world?

Rheumatic fever is most common in children between the ages of 5 and 14 in the developing world with limited access to medications and medical care to treat their strep throat or scarlet fever. Sometimes, the symptoms of strep are so mild that people do not realize they are infected until rheumatic fever develops.

Does rheumatic fever require hospitalization?

Children with rheumatic fever are often treated in the hospital, depending on the severity of the disease. Treatment for rheumatic fever, in most cases, combines the following three approaches: Treatment for streptococcus infection. The immediate goal is to treat the infection with antibiotics.

How is rheumatic heart disease prevented?

Ideally, ARF and RHD can be prevented. Antibiotic therapy (such as penicillin) to treat Group A Streptococcus throat infection can dramatically reduce the risk of ARF and its complication, rheumatic heart disease. If ARF or RHD do occur, long-term antibiotics can reduce progression to more severe disease.

Can rheumatic heart disease be inherited?

It is not clear why some people who are infected with group A Streptococcus bacteria go on to develop rheumatic fever, while others do not; however, it appears that some families may have a genetic susceptibility to develop the condition.

Who is at high risk for rheumatic fever?

Rheumatic fever most often affects children who are between 5 and 15 years old, though it can develop in younger children and adults. Although strep throat is common, rheumatic fever is rare in the United States and other developed countries.

How do I know if I had rheumatic fever as a child?

Key points about rheumatic fever Symptoms may include joint inflammation, small hard bumps under the skin, jerky movements, a rash, and fever. Treatment includes antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medicine, and bed rest. Your child will need to have ongoing treatment to stop the disease from coming back.

Is mitral regurgitation considered heart disease?

When it’s mild, mitral valve regurgitation usually does not cause any problems. However, severe mitral valve regurgitation can lead to complications, including: Heart failure. Heart failure results when your heart can’t pump enough blood to meet your body’s needs.

Can you live a long life with heart disease?

Simply put, if you take care of yourself and make the necessary changes, you can live a long, full life in spite of your heart disease diagnosis. It could add years, even decades, to your life. On the other hand, if you pursue a high-risk lifestyle you could find yourself in serious trouble.

Can heart disease be cured?

A: Although we can’t cure heart disease, we can make it better. Most forms of heart disease are very treatable today. There is some evidence that normalizing high blood pressure and lowering cholesterol to very low levels will partially reverse plaques in the coronary arteries.

How is rheumatic heart disease caused?

Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever. The heart valve is damaged by a disease process that generally begins with a strep throat caused by bacteria called Streptococcus, and may eventually cause rheumatic fever.